Définition de 1B2aiii2 Production and Upgrading Catégorie de sources
Fugitive emissions from oil production (excluding venting and flaring) occur at the oil wellhead or at the oil sands or shale oil mine through to the start of the oil transmission system. This includes fugitive emissions related to well servicing, oil sands or shale oil mining, transport of untreated production (i.e , well effluent, emulsion, oil shale and oilsands) to treating or extraction facilities, activities at extraction and upgrading facilities, associated gas reinjection systems and produced water disposal systems. Fugitive emission from upgraders are grouped with those from production rather than those from refining since the upgraders are often integrated with extraction facilities and their relative emission contributions are difficult to establish. However, upgraders may also be integrated with refineries, co-generation plants or other industrial facilities and their relative emission contributions can be difficult to establish in these cases.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buenida L., Miwa K., Ngara T., and Tanabe K. (eds.). IGES, 2006.
Available online at: http://www.ipcc-tfi.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html